Surveying the Field: Peasant Power in Andean History

Like many global hotspots of the twentieth century, the Andes is marked by its history of structural inequality, racial conflict, and legacies of poverty and violence. Tensions between urban and rural areas as well as between descendants of European and Andean ancestry still exist and remain a source of scholarly interest in the region. In… Read More Surveying the Field: Peasant Power in Andean History

South American Foreign Policy: Six Case Studies

Our next several sections will focus on the national foreign policy goals of six South American nations; Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela. Our criteria for selecting these countries are as follows, Argentina, Brazil, and Chile were chosen because of their historical importance in regional balance of power politics. Venezuela was chosen because of… Read More South American Foreign Policy: Six Case Studies

Historiography: Brazilian Hegemony in South America

(Mar. 31, 2008) The last explanation we will analyze here is what we are referring to as the “Brazilian hegemonic” explanation. This position holds that Brazil, given the much larger size of its population, economy, and territory relative to the rest of the region, is the natural hegemon in South American regional affairs.[1] This position… Read More Historiography: Brazilian Hegemony in South America

Historiography: Historical-Cultural Explanations

(Mar. 30, 2008) Other explanations for why the region has decided to pursue a strategy of South American unification focus on the cultural similarities between these nations. This interpretation emphasizes the post colonial Pan-American unification movement, begun by the early Liberators like Bolívar, Sucre, San Martin, or O’Higgins who said, “la patria de los americanos… Read More Historiography: Historical-Cultural Explanations

Regularity of Interaction Among South American Nations

(Mar. 28, 2008) The final factor we will look at in this section is the degree to which South American nations interact with each other. The formal political institutions that link the entire region are the United Nations and the Organization of American States. If Guyana and Surinam are removed the list increases to include… Read More Regularity of Interaction Among South American Nations

Definitions and Limitations II: Physical Borders

Geographically, South America refers to the territory located roughly between 12.5 degrees north and 56 degrees south latitude, and 34.5 east and 81.5 degrees west longitude, corresponding to the nations located southeast of Panama: Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, Brazil, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Paraguay, Chile, Argentina, and Uruguay. Physically it is bordered by the Caribbean Sea… Read More Definitions and Limitations II: Physical Borders

Definitions and Limitations III: Regional and Extra-Regional Powers

The broad geographic zones outlined in the last entry also correspond to the general separation of historic interests in South America. According to Atkins, the economic and political interests of the Caribbean states of Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, and Suriname have been predominantly influenced by the hegemonic influence of the United States and their respective European… Read More Definitions and Limitations III: Regional and Extra-Regional Powers

Definitions and Limitations IV: Perceptions of Shared Identity in South America

The interplay of different cultures in South America is another important factor in analyzing regional politics. The interaction between European immigrants, Africans, and later on immigrants from all over the world with the indigenous communities already living there has created a unique social atmosphere of syncretism and conflict. A crude division can be made along… Read More Definitions and Limitations IV: Perceptions of Shared Identity in South America